Category Archives: Caribbean

Time to get rid of the Jon crows: The issue of TV coverage of sport

Frustration, even anger, are not unknown emotions to most people. However, when they come and you feel that it’s because of something truly avoidable, they tend to intensify. I was enraged last Sunday (August 16) when I was unable to watch the men’s 100 metres final in the World Championships, from Berlin. I wanted to see history happen, with Jamaica’s Usain Bolt winning as in last year’s Olympics and breaking his world record set then. But, the machinations of a corporation or two who did not see it possible to help me and other people living in Barbados share that moment was all it took for frustration to turn to rage to turn to anger. Canadian Broadcasting Corporationcame to the rescue (oh, thanks, Canada), by cutting away from the ATP tennis at the Roger’s Masters Final in Montreal to show the race with a 15 minute delay.

In the meantime, I had gone ‘back to the future’: I had experienced the race live. An irate Jamaican friend on the phone in my left hand, was listening to me attentively. A friend who worked for VOB on the phone in my right hand, was giving me step-by-step commentary, that I was repeating to my Yardee. “They’re off. Bolt is ahead. Bolt surges ahead. No one in sight. Bolt wins! Bolt. New world record. 9.58 seconds. Usain Bolt…” At the end of my rebroadcast, my Jamaican friend was whooping and hollering, “Yes! We do it! Yes. Praise Jesus. Yes!”

But, why did we need to go back to the 1920s? It appears that Caribbean Media Corporation (CMC) had bought the television rights, but Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation had not paid to share those rights. So, we in Barbados lived the ‘hermit’s life on the momentous moment. It was not until Thursday, August 20, that CMC clarified what CBC had done. That was after….Barbados’ Ryan Brathwaite had created no small piece of history for this small rock, by winning the men’s 110 metres hurdles in 13.14 seconds, a new national record (which he had just broken with 13.18 secs. in the semis). Oh dear, Barbados had not been able to see its son have HIS day in the sun. People in Barbados were now very angry–they should have been since Sunday, but different strokes for different folks. “Why we cyan see dis? Why?” was the general call. But, praise CMC for making sure the right person is under the bus.

I love to see Caribbean integration possibilities wither and die: much as I believe that such integration is possible and could be beneficial, many do not. So, better to leave no doubts when you do not believe. CMC? It seems you did the right thing, so I read a correction to my letter below. CBC? Whatever your reasons for not buying the rights, you will be held up in the annals of history for a CRAVEN act. Some would like to suggest that the problem is simply that CBC has a new General Manager, Lars Soderstrom (a former international media consultant), who is non-Caribbean. That has to be too simplistic a view. It is about management generally, remembering that CBC is government-owned. If government is not influencing its policies then perhaps I need to look at the person with line responsibilities. No. CBC failed us–yes, it is personal–when success was so easy: snatching defeat from the jaws of victory–a rare talent. I suspect the capabities of a media company that does not see the need for, or merit in, putting dates on its online material; try a link and see for yourself. Would that the region were rid of craven actors. If anyone says that CBC’s actions were due to financial constraints I will demand a full and forensic investigation of their transactions over the past 12 months. Why? B.E.C.A.U.S.E. they did the same thing for the Beijing Olympics. So, craven then. Craven now. One word to describe them. Jon crow!

My letter, written early on Monday and sent to several newspapers (Gleaner-Jamaica; Advocate and Nation-Barbados), which reads more muted than I was, was published on August 21. Fittingly, the day when they could celebrate their first gold.

I am no politician and hold no political ambitions–never have. But, I want leadership that can feel people’s needs and cater to them. Leaders who are not simply ready to pass by possible moments in our history for reasons that have nothing to do with a gun being held to their heads. I want people who learn from mistakes leading and running institutions in the Caribbean. I DO NOT WANT JON CROWS NEAR ME! I am not carrion and am not to be fed upon as if I am dead and have no feelings. I do feel and I will respond. Jon crows need dead meat to survive. Stop feeding the Jon crow.

Read on, for the letter. My Living in Barbados blog, also has a piece that verbalises in Patois how I felt on the day (‘What a shame!’). Standard English is for ordinary moments. Patois is for expressions from the heart. There is a follow-on piece that tries to share the joy that was experienced when I found live coverage, in a sports bar in Barbados. I did share fully with Jamaicans and Barbadians THE moments when Usain broke the 200 metres record again, and took gold–the day before his birthday. I did see and live through the agonizing tension of the 100 metres hurdles, which after a blanket finish, needed many minutes to declare Ryan Brathwaite the winner. I did glow as Melaine Walker took gold in the 400 metres and laugh myself silly as the mascot took her on a lap of honour only to lapse into a stadium machine and turn Melaine into a pole vaulter. Some of those moments are also on my Living in Barbados blog (‘Rage ain’t nothing but a number’).

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Here is the link to the Advocate letter. The printed text is below, with my correction regarding CMC/CBC inserted.

Where’s the coverage?

8/21/2009

THE joy of Caribbeans – in my case, Jamaicans – winning medals at the 2009 World Championships in Berlin has been a frustrating experience, or non experience to try to share. Those of us in Barbados have once again to endure what seems like a disregard for support for our region.

CMC [correction: CBC] did not buy the television broadcast rights. We have therefore been subjected to the displeasing situation of listening to the events, when broadcast, on radio. Just like in the good old Colonial days. I felt insulted as a national and as person of this Caribbean region.

We have reason to be proud, that our smallness in size and number is clearly no limitation on our ambition and achievement.

But it would seem that that pride is not shared or we will not be allowed to share it ‘live and direct’.

We look at the few symbols of regional unity and most of them are in tatters. We all know we are nationalistic, at least in part. It is natural. But we are also in need of integration and collaboration as a region. The action of CMC [correction: CBC] is to me another nail in the coffin of Caribbean unity. We saw how the region could share in the gains of one or a few nations as if we were all one.

I wont go to the historic racial significance of Berlin, and recall the ignominy faced by Jesse Owens in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. (Many readers will only know this from history books, or now, the Internet, see http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/system/topicRoot/Jesse_Owens_at_the_Berlin_Olymp/).

I just note that many black athletes in 2009 have proudly shown solidarity with that moment by emblems denoting Jesse Owens.

All we ask is for CMC [correction: CBC] to show a little solidarity, too.

This was just too much for me.

Dennis Jones

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The JPG version of the printed page is below (Advocate does not archive the print versions of the papers, for legal reasons).

World Champs Letter Advocate Aug 21 2009

Time for cleansing: redux

No sooner had I written yesterday’s post than I saw in today’s Barbados Advocate an article entitled ‘Gender cleansing’ in education? Its main argument is that in recent years the administrative head of the Barbados school system has changed from largely male to largely (or in some parishes, only) female. Gender cleansing 1It goes beyond and looks at physchologists in the Ministry of Education. Gender cleansing 2The bottom line: role models in the education system are essentially female. We see other aspects of that with the growing imbalance at the university level.

In sheer, agonizing irony, the same paper on the preceding page has an article entitled ‘…the gallows for a doorpost…’, that tries to pour cold water on the words of Sir Shridath Ramphal. The author, Jeff Cumberbatch, concludes “I am of the opinon that Sir Sridath does not have anything to apologize for. He is guilty of…giving far too much credence to a single newspaper leader article, of exaggeration..and of inadvertently jarring the sensitivities of some who view any criticism of government’s inchoate immigration policy as anathema.”Cumberbatch Ramphal

More than before, I really don’t think we understand how these loose utterances are slowly changing what is acceptable, but without much regard for what is really being meant.

Time for some cleansing, no matter how unpalatable

An enormous brouhaha has erupted over the use of the word “cleansing”. The problems have evolved not from the use of the word in isolation, but with its usage in conjunction with certain adjectives. The most notable recent usage in the Caribbean region was that reportedto have been uttered by Sir Sridath Ramphal, who used “intimations” of “ethnic cleansing” in commenting on actions associated with the Barbadian government’s change of amnesty policy for Caricom non-nationals. Many people rans straight past “intimations” to the other two words and got understandably angry. They did not see any relationship with the infamous cases of ethnic cleansing, such as in Bosnia or Rwanda. Some even made the charge worse by misquoting, and using “practising” or more active verbs instead of “intimations”. Sir S. was in hot water.

Last week, Barbadian political analyst and pollster, Peter Wickham, added his dollar’s worth (see the Nation, People and Things: Ethnic cleansing nonsense). He said clearly, “I believe Sir Shridath’s comments were entirely out of order and no deliberation on the meaning of “intimation” can rationalise it.” But, he proceeds, “it is also important that these comments be placed in perspective. I appreciate the location of those remarks and am entirely sympathetic to his intentions, although not his methods. He then criticizes the Nation newspaper for some irresponsible journalism and goes back to remind of the unintended results of the changed policy. He closed with, “To him I say, I feel your pain, but let’s not do an injustice to our understanding of the atrocities that have taken place in Bosnia, Serbia and Rwanda by comparing these to garden variety xenophobia in Barbados.”

The Merrian-Webster dictionary has the origin of ‘ethnic cleansing’ in 1991, and defines it as ‘ the expulsion, imprisonment, or killing of an ethnic minority by a dominant majority in order to achieve ethnic homogeneity’. At its most extreme, we have genocide–‘the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group’ according to Webster’s (origin, 1944). But such killing has been rife through the ages and The Bible tells us so.

But, we know that the general activity predates by many centuries the use of this new term. The new term was prompted by war activities in the former Yugoslavia. In the 20th century alone we know of hideous instances of the activity but with different terms. We have Nazi Germany: where areas could be declared ‘judenrein’ (literally “Jew Clean”,  “cleansed of Jews” in the pursuit of Aryan racial purity. We have the former Soviet Union: the Russian term ochistka granits (очистка границ) (“cleansing of borders”) was used in documents of the early 1930s in reference to the resettlement of Poles. We have many other examples around the globe through time–India, Israel, Indonesia–just staying with countries starting with the letter i. I personally lived with the effects of people expelled from Cyprus and Uganda. I wont go back through the centuries, but one only has to think about how some great nations were formed by the mass exodus of certain peoples to see and understand that we are seeing nothing new.

The ‘cleansing’ has its degrees and we can argue long and hard about where on the spectrum Sir Sridath was trying to position what he was observing. He does need to set the record straight. We do not need to go to the most vicious extremes.

But, perhaps mistaking all things to do with cleanliness to be near to godliness, public officials have been wading around without boots that do not leak.

In Trinidad, Caroni East MP, Dr Tim Gopeesingh, used “ethnic cleansing” in Parliament on July 17, but has since tried to explain that he meant ‘silent’ cleansing, in the sense of political discrimination, see Trinidad Guardian report). We now have to move from e-cleansing to ‘political’ cleansing. But, tongues will not be silenced.

In Barbados this week, the opposition politicians have joined in usage of the term ‘cleansing’. Today’s Nation reports that “Dr William Dugiud (sic) claims that UDC workers about to be axed are “highly qualified” and are “capable of doing jobs which some of them have done for nine or ten years”. And he has decried the government’s action as “just political cleansing.” Dr. Duguid (note correction) may find within a few hours that he has done himself no good at all. If the quote is correct, we are heading for a problem just because of syntax. ‘Just’, as an adverb, can mean very recently, only, simply, barely, etc. But ‘just’ as an adjective can mean fair (ie. good, merited, legally correct, etc.) Which ‘just’ did he mean? However you look at it, the good Dr. could be commending the government or condemning the government. I guess he will clarify.

I think smart people should try to say smart things and stay away from terms that are likely to aggravate rather than calm. Poor President Obama learnt that a few weeks ago, with his use of ‘stupid’. As a parent, I forbid the use of such language by my child and chastise my wife too if she uses it; it is not necessary and should be put away. “Loose lips sink ships”, they used to say. Not only ships, I would venture.

What does it mean to be a citizen?

A number of commentators in various media have focused on the possible legal action against some of the victorious candidates in the recent general election in Jamaica, because of allegations that they might have made pledges of allegiance etc. to foreign powers. This comes from a requirement in the Jamaican Constitution (1962) 40 (2 a), which states that:

No person shall be qualified to be appointed as a Senator or elected as a member of the House of Representatives who-

is, by virtue of his own act, under any acknowledgment of allegiance, obedience or adherence to a foreign Power or State;..

This restriction raises a number of interesting questions about what it means to be a Jamaican citizen. Most commentators have seen this as an issue related to dual citizenship, and I do too.

Dual citizenship is recognized by Jamaica. A useful website on dual citizenship (see http://www.constitution-and-rights.com/dual-citizenship.html) gives the following information:

A person who was born outside of Jamaica before August 6, 1962 and whose father or mother would have become a citizen of Jamaica on August 6, 1962 automatically became a Jamaican citizen. See Section 3A of the Jamaican Constitution.

A person who is married to a Jamaican citizen is entitled to be registered as a Jamaican citizen, regardless of his prior citizenship. See Sections 4 and 7 of the Jamaican Constitution.

Every person born in Jamaica after August 5, 1962 is entitled to Jamaican citizenship, regardless of whether he/she is entitled to the citizenship of any other country. See Section 5 of the Jamaican Constitution.

A person born outside of Jamaica after August 5, 1962 is entitled to Jamaican citizenship if his father or mother was born in Jamaica. See Section 6 of the Jamaican Constitution.

Many of the countries to which Jamaicans have emigrated also recognize dual citizenship, namely Canada, the UK, USA. Many Jamaicans who emigrated have done nothing to change their nationality or citizenship from just being Jamaican, even though they have the option for dual citizenship. Many Jamaicans who emigrated took the opportunity to acquire a second citizenship in their host country for a range of reasons. I do not have figures on either group, but it would be interesting to see what the numbers are. Let us simplify by saying that some of those who obtained dual citizenship have also returned to Jamaica and have the right to vote; again, I have no figures for this group. However, if you can vote as a dual citizen, why does the Constitution make the distinction it does when it comes to holding a position as a Senator or in the House of Representatives?

If there is some concern that those with dual citizenship will somehow serve their constituents and country less than those with only Jamaican citizenship, then take away their right to stand for election completely. Why waste time? But if that is the belief, then also do not let those who are dual citizens vote. Returning residents are being sought and more outreach is being made toward the Diaspora; many of both groups may have dual citizenship and have very strong desires to help Jamaica. But for that overtures to them to make sense then the dual citizenship issue needs to be rethought.

There are also Jamaicans who live abroad who have never obtained dual citizenship but have lost their rights to vote in Jamaican elections. When this issue has been brought up, the general impression I have is that politicians in Jamaica do not want to extend the right to vote to all “Jamaicans” outside the country. I can understand partly this resistance, because in many ways it can complicate the election arithmetic, not least by greatly expanding the electorate, but also giving votes to a body of people who largely do not then reside in the country and have to deal with the immediate consequences of their voting behaviour. Other countries that have given the right to overseas voters tend to be much larger, and their overseas population does not tend to be greater that the population within country. Many Caribbean countries, by contrast, have overseas citizens whose numbers could be close to or greater than the home population.

I think the issue of citizenship and eligibility for political office needs to be rethought, not least to reflect some aspects of current realities.

Jamaica’s elections open a new chapter

The Parliamentary elections, which were held on September 3, have left the country in yet more confusion. The initial results gave JLP a 31-29 seat victory over incumbent PNP, but the PM has not accepted these results and requested recounts. Director of Elections, Danville Walker, said the official recount begins at 9 o’clock this morning. There is every likelihood that the election results will not known for some time and there may be legal proceedings regarding candidates in some constituencies. There are reports of electoral irregularities, which will complicate reaching final results. Amongst these, PM Simpson-Miller had alleged that some members of the JLP had sworn allegiance to foreign powers which, if true, may make them ineligible to hold seats in the House of Representatives; she also alleged JLP campaigning the day before elections (which is illegal) and vote buying. A good blog to look at, Jamaican Lifestyle (see link) is providing some very interesting insights into Jamaican politics, and its economic and social life. I recommend it for keeping abreast of the election developments. Also worth a read is the lead article in today’s Gleaner (see link).

The various surveys had indicated that the election would be close, with JLP having a slight lead, and indications are that PNP suffered the aftermath of Hurricane Dean, with the slow process of relief and repair hitting its image in the public mind. And so it has proved, in what has been the closest election in terms of seats since Jamaica gained universal suffrage in 1944. The Electoral Office of Jamaica said yesterday’s voter turnout was a modest 60.40 per cent. Politcally motivated violence seems to have reared its ugly head in the days leading up to voting and on voting day itself. Whatever the final outcome of the voting, this election will give much food for thought to both sides.

What a difference a day makes: Where now Jamaica?

jamaica-bananas.jpgJamaica was sailing along towards elections on August 27. Opinion pollsters and ordinary citizens were making their calculations about who would come out ahead on voting day. The various debates between PNP and JLP heavy weights, culminating in the debate between PM Portia Simpson-Miller and JLP leader, Hugh Golding, seemed to have given JLP an edge heading towards the last week. Then, buddum!

Nature, who has no votes, but often can be critical in how things turn out, wanted to have its say. A hurricane of enormous proportions started its way across up the string of Caribbean islands, with its eye set on Jamaica. Fast forward. The eye passed the island by, but there was still a devastating impact on several parts of the country. But, outside the concerns of meterologists, the hurricane had changed more than the physical landscape of Jamaica. The electoral landscape was dramatically changed, and now is in a sea of uncertainty.

The PM decided to institute a month long state of emergency as the hurricane knocked out electricity, and criminals seemed poised to create more than a little havoc under cover of darkness. With the hurricane past, but with only 20 percent of the island with power, that state of emergency has not been lifted, even though there have been many reasoned calls for this  (see, for example, The Gleaner editorial of August 21). The editorial was a classic for succintness:

It is essential that this emergency comes to an end immediately. The security forces are clearly on top of the situation. There is no threat to law and order. There is nothing “likely to endanger the public safety or to deprive the community, or any substantial portion of the community, of supplies or services essential to life”. No justification for prolonging the emergency beyond today exists. It must come to an end now.

The PM said that she did consult with the opposition, so wont accept any accusations that she sewed disunity in the nation, and is having no hesitation continuing with the state of emergency.

Meanwhile, a certain confusion has set in about the date of the election. August 27 could not work, not least because the security services and poll workers could not vote this week, as previously expected. News came out that the Electoral Commission had proposed September 3 and that this had been accepted by the Governor General, and that date seemed agreed as a spokesperson for the Ministry of Education and Youth announced that schools would not reopen that day but on September 10, acknowledging that many schools also act as voting stations. (If the original date chosen had been a play on 7,  how could a play on 3s and 9s–with their very different spiritual significance–work?) Cabinet met in emergency session on August 21 to consider a recommendataion that the elections be postponed from August 27 to September 3 and that members of the security forces go to the polls on August 28, one week later than the August 21 date that was first set. But the PM in a national address on August 22, made no mention of a date for the election.

So what now? Part of the confusion is a result of a protocol mix up. The Electoral Commmission should have put its recommendation to Cabinet before handing it to the Governor General. That should be easy to overcome, and presumably is a lesson for the future. Not surprisingly, there are those who feel that more time will help PNP to get the benefits of the hurricane in terms of largesse that will start to flow in terms of dealing with the damage. But, some believe that the continued state of emergency will be a bigger negative than any positive from the largesse, so while that stays in place it will hurt PNP’s chances. While tourism seems to have been able to escaped major damage, that has not stopped a rapid campaign to reassure foreigners that “Jamaica is open”.  The country’s agricultural sector took a big hit, especially bananas. That could factor into fears about economic prospects, at least in some areas in the short run. Rehabilatiton needs will create some possibilities for jobs and some patching up that might sway some but it’s hard to see that this will really matter much to anybody who has had years without something basic like a good road or other social service. In the meantime, the Jamaica Power Service seems to be drawing back from any promises about when it can get power back to most of the island, and until that occurs, it hard to see (sorry for the pun) how the right conditions exist for holding elections.

So, for at least a while the country is really stumbling in the dark and more than a little confused. My own naive opining had been that the longer the time between announcement and election, the worse the situation for PNP: under the British-sytle parliamentary system incumbents are not usually helped by delay. Now, there is confusion and that delay could be good or bad, but much will rest on what is really done with that time. It could be a bumpy few weeks ahead.

Trying to embrace Africa

 bp43919.jpgBeginning August 23, Barbados will be the venue of a 10 day Bicentennial Global Dialogue, an African Diaspora conference that will include discussions on economic, political, historical, social, and cultural issues that link the Caribbean with Africa (see report). The conference is supposed to help preparation for interministerial meetings of the Caribbean and African Union in South Africa, November 16-18.

Many ideas are circulating about how stronger connections can be built between Africa and the Caribbean, and the 200th anniversary of the abolition of the British slave trade provides a good symbolic anchor for these ideas. However, the discussions and debates sometimes occur in various states of confusion.

I lived and worked for three years recently in Guinea, west Africa; I have also worked in several other African countries. I know that Africa is not one place, with agreed views and attitudes. Continue reading

Hurricane Dean

treehouse.jpgI have focused my attention on my other blog (Living in Barbados), and the need to pay attention to preparations for Hurricane Dean as it approached Barbados, quickly turned to concern for my family in Jamaica as Dean moved on with greater ferocity towards that island. Gladly, the eye of the storm stayed offshore, but the island still got a beating. Relatives to whom I have spoken today (in Mandeville and Kingston [UWI Hospital) report a heavy battering by rain, with less wind effects. Worst hit areas appear to be those closer to the coasts, with the hurricane taking its toll on trees, but creating less property damage than if the full brunt of the storm had hit the island. I have not heard from relatives in St. Mary, where I hear that fixed phone lines are still down and I have not been able to reach anyone there by cell phone. The Gleaner is keeping a useful hurricane blog going of developments on the island (from where the photo graph is taken), using a range of their reporters.

Bloggers in Barbados have kept a good watch on developments further north, so it’ s worth checking their sites (Barbados Free Press, Barbados Underground, Notes from the Margin) as well as the well-established news (such as CNN, BBC) and weather websites (such as the Weather Channel).

The worst of the present hurricane seems to have passed the Caribbean islands and now heads towards Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula.

Hurricane Dean will make for an interesting few days ahead as Jamaica prepares for elections on August 27. The physical conditions of the country and the need to get things back to normal could make it very difficult to hold elections on that date, but we await further decisions by the Election Commission.

International Health Travel: Possibilities for the Caribbean?

A fascinating book was published recently, entitled Patients Beyond Borders (see also http://www.patientsbeyondborders.com/), written by Josef Woodman. Mr. Woodman gives us the benefit of three years’ research into medical facilities available to foreign travelers in a range of countries. He has produced what is described as “Everybody’s Guide to Affordable World-Class Medical Tourism”.  Mr. Woodman has spent more than three years researching contemporary medical tourism, interviewing patients, practitioners, administrators, government officials and specialists in the field, while conducting an extensive analysis of safety records, accreditations, success rates and consumer trends. giving potential health travelers the most up-to-date information, pros, cons, considerations, and step-by-step instructions for a successful and cost-effective journey. More than 150,000 Americans travel abroad for healthcare each year to a growing number of highly accredited institutions catering to the American public. Navigating the various countries, hospitals, medical centers, travel agencies and brokers can be a daunting task when facing an important health decision.

Patients Beyond Borders was written to narrow the field to the best possible choices, providing the American consumer with an unbiased and informative guide to a fast growing healthcare phenomenon. It has hundreds of well-researched, safe treatment options for affordable healthcare in 22 destinations worldwide. Though aimed at Americans, the book should be a valuable resource to many other nationalities who wish to search for alternative health care options outside their national borders. This subject featured in a recent article in The Economist (March 10, 2007): “Medical tourism: Sun, sand and scalpels”. Continue reading

Conference on the Caribbean: A Participant’s Perspective

caricomheadssmall.gifDuring June 19-21, Caricom heads of state and its secretary-general attended a conference in Washington DC, hosted by the World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, and the Organisation of American states (see conference web site). The heads of state had an historic summit with the US government (see White House statement); long overdue many agreed, but it had been a long time in the planning and fell well in Caribbean American heritage month. The White House statement makes most of the right political noises on issues such as protecting democracy and enhancing security, expanding trade and building the services sector. Whether Caribbean citizens will feel that any of this really has them in mind will be for time to tell.

The conference and summit have left those present in Washington with some sense of optimism because Caribbean issues were put in front of American government officials as well as offiicals from important multilateral agencies. That optimism, however, needs to be set in a realistic context: the Caribbean is small and is not amongst the US administration’s highest priorities (one can judge this by the ease with which US officials absent themselves from proceedings). With President Bush coming to the end of his 2nd term, he may be seen as a lame duck, so whatever “commitments” his administration made could be added to the litany of promises yet to be fulfilled.

The conference also showed that there are plenty of leaders in the extended Caribbean community, not just amongst those who have assumed political leadership positions. Successful and striving would fit many of the women and men present at the conference who are in business, non-profit organizations, studying, or whatever field they are in. That should be a good signal because we have seen in recent months some startling lack of leadership, decision-making and vision within the region and things associated with it. Continue reading